Topicality. An Olympic cycle is the training of sportsmen between two Olympic Games. Such a multi-annual, long-term training structure allows planning the course of training, adjusting physical load, and ensures the improvement of sportsmen. The structure of every cycle remains the same, but the content changes to meet the increasing demands of bodily adaptation (Matvejev, 1999).
The training methods of canoeists changed with the distances of Olympic events. Now, only C1 200 m and 1000 m distances remain in the Olympic Games, making sportsmen choose carefully what they want to achieve because different events require a specific approach in terms of physical and functional preparation.
Rowing, just like other types of sport, is analyzed scientifically. Various researches help to know more about the physical functional characteristics of sportsmen, and this information proves invaluable both to the sportsman and his coach. Even though the training of Lithuanian canoeists has been analyzed quite extensively (Alekrinskis et al., 2003, 2005; Skernevičius et al., 2003; Rudzinskas et al., 2004), the 200 m event requires specific skills and appropriate research to identify the changes of a canoeist's physical and functional characteristics during the training cycle (Skernevičius). This information is vital to carry out the management of pedagogical control when aiming for best results.
Subject of the research: the training of professional Lithuanian canoeists.
Purpose of the research: to analyze the physical load, effectiveness, and the connections to physical preparation and development during the 1-year training programme of Lithuanian professional canoeists for the 200 m Olympic event.
1. Theoretical analysis and summary;
2. Pedagogical observation;
3. Research of physical and functional preparation;
4. Analysis of documents;
5. Mathematical and statistical analysis.
1. After the analysis of literature, a conclusion can be made that physical loads and their intensity constitute the major elements of the training process. The allocation of physical load during the 4-year training cycle is the main factor determining a sportsman's performance. It has to be similar to the modelled characteristics of leading sportsmen. Another important part is the training of anaerobic capabilities, and the strengthening of bloodstream and the pulmonary system. The most important way for a sportsman to achieve excellence is to develop his individual physical, functional, and psychological characteristics optimally.
2. After the analysis of the macrocycle planning and physical load changes during one year of training, three main stages of the training cycle were identified: transitional, preparatory, and competition.
• The goals of the transitional stage: to maintain physical preparation with the emphasis on general endurance.
• The goals of the preparatory stage: to apply effective models of pedagogical training which would facilitate the physical, functional, and tactical training for the desired event. The gradual and repetitive training methods were used, and at the end of the stage the sportsmen did 30–60 s distances at competition speed.
• The goals of the competition stage: to maintain and increase the level of preparation, and put the sportsman's skills to practice through the use of gradual, alternate, and repetitive training methods.
3. The analysis of the 1-year training cycles showed that the sportsmen had trained 435 times. That‘s 300 days, and 1105 h training load.
4. The analysis showed the training process to be a success because it ensured the changes in the body required for the 200 m event: from 1.6 to 0 according to Roufier’s test indices, MAC, special endurance, vital capacity, SMCP, AAMP, anaerobic glycolic endurance training.
5. The annual analysis of training plans showed that the training plan was scientifically sound, and the microcycle structure was oriented at relevant goals: proper training system, its duration, and intensity.
6. The analysis of the changes of physical and functional indices showed that the peak of functional performance was not always achieved during the competition mezocycle. Thus we believe that the main factors to draw attention to in order to ensure optimal performance during the competition period are:
• Development of strength and muscle mass;
• Improvement of bloodstream and pulmonary systems;
• Tactical and technical preparation.
7. Based on the analysis of the results a conclusion can be made that the training of canoeists complies with the international level, and the data of physical and functional research, compared to the modelled characteristics of canoeists, match that of elite sportsmen.
Raktažodžiai: Training, canoeists, education